Croughton from Rainsborough Camp
The radomes of USAF Croughton, dawn, November 2017

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This site is devoted to USAF Croughton (and its outstation, Barford St. John) on the border of Oxfordshire and Northamptonshire – part of a global electronic communications, control and surveillance that works on behalf of the US military and intelligence establishment, projecting of American military power across Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.

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A list of more advanced documentation that describes the operations of different military and intelligence organisations – listed in reverse chronological order by publication date:

Please note: Where a link is in blue that indicates the files is kept on this web site; if the link is in red then it is located on another, different site somewhere else. If you cannot get the file from other site that’s not our ‘technical problem’, but if the link continues not to work please let us know so we can post a copy here.

Global Strategic Trends: The Future Starts Today, 6th edition, MoD, 2nd October 2018
Global Strategic Trends (GST) describes a strategic context for those in the Ministry of Defence (MOD) and wider government who are involved in developing long term plans, strategies, policies and capabilities. Without a strategic context there is a risk that planners, policymakers and capability developers may assume a future that adheres to preconceived thoughts and assumptions.
Achieve and Maintain Cyberspace Superiority, US Cyber Command, February 2018
Military superiority in the air, land, sea, and space domains is critical to our ability to defend our interests and protect our values. Achieving superiority in the physical domains in no small part depends on superiority in cyberspace. Yet we risk ceding cyberspace superiority.
Joint Doctrine Publication 0-30.2: Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre, MoD, January 2018
This publication updates much of the information previously presented in Joint Doctrine Note (JDN) 2/11, The UK Approach to Unmanned Aircraft systems, which is now withdrawn. This JDP includes new detail on the UAS tasking process and explains the need to consider not only the ‘collect’ task, but also the process, exploit and disseminate (PED) functions. It provides the key facts and arguments that support how and why Her Majesty’s Government uses its unmanned capability.
☮ Chapter 2, 'Information Fusion – Intelligence Centers and Intelligence Analysis', Information Sharing in Military Operations, 2017
The U.S. Department of Defense transformed itself from a Cold War fighting force to one tailored to fighting global terrorism and terror-sponsoring regimes. The international character of terrorism required new information technology and new sources of information. The variety and volume of information also required an organizational structure to overcome the compartmentalization of intelligence. Fusion centers became the solution. This chapter summarizes the existing literature on information and intelligence fusion in both civilian and military fusion centers.
Activity-Based Intelligence – Revolutionizing Military Intelligence Analysis, Joint Forces Quarterly, Summer 2015
Information-age technology is advancing at a stunning pace, yielding increasingly complex information architectures, data accessibility, and knowledge management—all of which have created the conditions for a leap in intelligence processes,” stated Lieutenant General Robert Otto, the Air Force Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR). 1 The vast amount of information that the Intelligence Community (IC) collects demands a transformation in the way the Department of Defense (DOD) intelligence enterprise processes, organizes, and presents data. The enterprise must embrace the opportunities inherent to big data while also driving toward a unified strategy with the IC.
Beyond the Build – The Commander’s Vision and Guidance for US Cyber Command, US Cyber Command, June 2015
As cyberspace has grown and become more pervasive, military art has changed. No one today can exert or maintain national power without acute sensitivity to the digital networks that underpin the world’s communications, prosperity, and security. Although the US Department of Defense and Intelligence Community had an early advantage in cyber capabilities, today much of the technical expertise necessary here resides outside government and often outside our nation. The United States is working hard to maintain its edge over potential adversaries in cyberspace—but we must acknowledge our nation is facing peer competitors in this domain.
DISA Strategic Plan, 2015-2020, US Defense Information Systems Agency, June 2015
We are at an operational crossroads. We continue to operate in a contested battlespace, where the barrier to entry is low and oftentimes unchallenged. We must recognize that mission success is defined by our ability to pre-emptively disrupt, degrade, or deny our adversaries, both internal and external, unimpeded access to the information and capabilities of the Department of Defense Information Network (DODIN). We must sustain our operations and defenses before, during, and after an attack by reducing the attack surface, continually improving defensive cyberspace operations, and effectively commanding and controlling the DODIN. We are the premier Information Technology Combat Support Agency that provides and assures command, control, communications, computing, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) to the warfighter. We deliver enterprise services and data at the user point of need. We now serve as the joint operational arm of defensive cyberspace operations, for the Department of Defense.
The US DoD Cyber Strategy, US Department of Defense, April 2015
The United States is committed to an open, secure, interoperable, and reliable Internet that enables prosperity, public safety, and the free flow of commerce and ideas. These qualities of the Internet reflect core American values – of freedom of expression and privacy, creativity, opportunity, and innovation. And these qualities have allowed the Internet to provide social and economic value to billions of people. We are vulnerable in this wired world. Today our reliance on the confidentiality, availability, and integrity of data stands in stark contrast to the inadequacy of our cybersecurity. State and non-state actors conduct cyber operations to achieve a variety of political, economic, or military objectives.
Autonomous Military Technology: Opportunities and Challenges for Policy and Law, The Heritage Foundation, 6th August 2014
Autonomous technology is a promising area of development, and has the potential to greatly increase U.S. military capacities. Congress should encourage research on autonomous technologies by providing adequate funding, creating clear policies for autonomous capabilities and use, and supporting a sensible legal framework to govern such systems.
Electronic warfare to be part of all military operations, Military Aerospace, August 2014
New threats and technologies are giving rise to terms like spectrum warfare that seek to blend electronic warfare, cyber warfare, and other technological approaches to controlling the RF spectrum.
With Liberty to Monitor All: How Large-Scale US Surveillance is Harming Journalism, Law, and American Democracy, Human Rights Watch/American Civil Liberties Union, July 2014
This report documents the insidious effects of large-scale US surveillance on the practice of journalism and law in the United States, and the threat it poses to basic freedoms and democratic values. The report is based on extensive interviews with journalists, lawyers, and senior US government officials.
Recommendations and Report of the Task Force on US Drone Policy, The Stimson Center, June 2014
This report represents a preliminary effort to offer analysis and recommendations that could help shape and guide US UAV policy going forward. It looks at the military and national security benefits of UAV technologies, analyzes our current approaches to UAV development and export, and seeks to contextualize the strategic questions relating to the use of lethal UAVs outside traditional battlefields.
Strategic Trends Programme: Global Strategic Trends – Out to 2045, 5th edition, MoD, June 2014
Global Strategic Trends (GST) describes a strategic context for those in the Ministry of Defence (MOD) and wider Government who are involved in developing long-term plans, policies and capabilities. Without a strategic context there is a risk that planners, policy-makers and capability developers may assume a future that adheres to preconceived thoughts and assumptions. As well as providing a strategic context, this fifth edition of GST (GST5) identifies long-term threats and opportunities, out to 2045.
NATO in an Era of Global Competition, The Atlantic Council of the United States, June 2014
As NATO winds down its long combat operation in Afghanistan, the Alliance is facing a new and dynamic security environment that is more strategically constraining and competitive than at any time since the end of the Cold War. This is spurred by a set of long-term trends that are driving a transformation of global arrangements and power relationships and is further reinforced by fiscal austerity and uncertain political leadership on both sides of the Atlantic.
Advancing The Debate on Killer Robots: 12 Key Arguments for a Preemptive Ban on Fully Autonomous Weapons, Human Rights Watch/International Human Rights Clinic, May 2014
The development of fully autonomous weapons, also known as "killer robots," and the proposal to ban them preemptively have sparked impassioned debate at the international and national levels. Experts – including lawyers, ethicists, military specialists, human rights advocates, and scientists – have argued about the legality and desirability of the weapons in official diplomatic meetings, at conferences around the world, in academic journals, and on the Internet.
Shaking the Foundations: The Human Rights Implications of Killer Robots, Human Rights Watch/International Human Rights Clinic, May 2014
The role of fully autonomous weapons in armed conflict and questions about their ability to comply with international humanitarian law have generated heated debate, but the weapons' likely use beyond the battlefield has been largely ignored. These weapons could easily be adapted for use in law enforcement operations, which would trigger international human rights law.
Quadrennial Defense Review, US Department of Defense, 04/03/2014
The United States faces a rapidly changing security environment. We are repositioning to focus on the strategic challenges and opportunities that will define our future: new technologies, new centers of power, and a world that is growing more volatile, more unpredictable, and in some instances more threatening to the United States. Challenges to our many allies and partners around the globe remain dynamic and unpredictable, particularly from regimes in North Korea and Iran.
Advance Unedited Version – Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, Ben Emmerson, United Nations, 28/02/2014
In the main report, contained in chapter III, the Special Rapporteur examines the use of remotely piloted aircraft, or drones, in extraterritorial lethal counter-terrorism operations, including in the context of asymmetrical armed conflict, and allegations that the increasing use of remotely piloted aircraft, or drones, has caused disproportionate civilian casualties, and makes recommendations to States.
RPA Vector: Vision and Enabling Concepts 2013-2038, United States Air Force, 17/02/2014
The U.S. Air Force (USAF) "Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) Vector – Vision and Enabling Concepts: 2013-2038" balances the effects envisioned in the USAF "Unmanned Aircraft Systems Flight Plan 2009-2047" with the reality of constrained resources and ambitious national strategy for a complex world. More importantly, as a visionary document, the RPA Vector opens the aperture beyond current austere fiscal realities to explore art of the possible technologies in the 2013–2038 timeframe.
Field Manual no.3-38: Cyber Electromagnetic Activities, US Army, February 2014
This manual describes the importance of cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) to Army forces and provides the tactics and procedures commanders and staffs use in planning, integrating, and synchronizing CEMA. This manual provides the information necessary for Army forces to conduct CEMA that enable them to shape their operational environment and conduct unified land operations.
20YY: Preparing for War in the Robotic Age, Center for a New American Security, January 2014
Over the past several decades, the United States has been an aggressive first mover in a war-fighting regime centered on guided munitions and integrated battle networks. For a variety of reasons the preeminence enjoyed by the United States in this regime is starting to erode. As a result, U.S. defense strategists and force planners are confronted by a rapidly approaching future in which guided munitions and battle networking technologies have proliferated widely and are employed by both state and non-state actors across the full range of military operations.
Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap, US Department of Defense, December 2013
Unmanned systems continue to deliver new and enhanced battlefield capabilities to the warfighter. While the demand for unmanned systems continues unabated today, a number of factors will influence unmanned program development in the future. Three primary forces are driving the Department of Defense's (DoD) approach in planning for and developing unmanned systems.
Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, United Nations, 18/09/2013
The present report is the third annual report submitted to the General Assembly by the current Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism. The key activities undertaken by the Special Rapporteur between 10 January and 8 August 2013 are listed in section II. Section III is an interim report to the General Assembly on the use of remotely piloted aircraft in counter-terrorism operations.
Human rights implications of the usage of drones and unmanned robots in warfare, European Union, 03/05/2013
Armed drones and other robotic weapons gives rise to a number of controversies. Some of these controversies relate to the lawfulness of robotic weapons technology as such, whereas others relate to the circumstances and manner in which such technology is being used in current State practice. The resulting uncertainty as to the applicable legal standards, in conjunction with the rapid development and proliferation of drone and robotic technology and the perceived lack of transparency and accountability in current policies, has the potential of polarizing the international community, undermining the rule of law.
Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Christof Heyns, United Nations General Assembly, 09/04/2013
Lethal autonomous robotics (LARs) are weapon systems that, once activated, can select and engage targets without further human intervention. They raise far-reaching concerns about the protection of life during war and peace. This includes the question of the extent to which they can be programmed to comply with the requirements of international humanitarian law and the standards protecting life under international human rights law.
Watchlisting Guidance, US National Counterterrorism Centre, March 2013
The current TERRORIST watchlisting process supports the U.S. Govemment's efforts to combat TERRORISM by: (1) consolidating the U.S. Govemment's Terrorist Watchlist in the TSDB; (2) helping SCREENERS and intelligence agencies accurately identify individuals on the Terrorist Watchlist; (3) providing SCREENERS with information to help them respond appropriately during ENCOUNTERS with KNOWN or SUSPECTED TERRORISTS; and, (4) subsequently collecting information about the KNOWN or SUSPECTED TERRORIST for use in assessing threats and conducting investigations.
Losing Humanity: The Case against Killer Robots, Human Rights Watch/International Human Rights Clinic, November 2012
With the rapid development and proliferation of robotic weapons, machines are starting to take the place of humans on the battlefield. Some military and robotics experts have predicted that "killer robots" – fully autonomous weapons that could select and engage targets without human intervention – could be developed within 20 to 30 years. At present, military officials generally say that humans will retain some level of supervision over decisions to use lethal force, but their statements often leave open the possibility that robots could one day have the ability to make such choices on their own power.
Federal Support For and Involvement In State and Local Fusions Centers, The US Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, October 2012
Sharing terrorism-related information between state, local and Federal officials is crucial to protecting the United States from another terrorist attack. …the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations has found, however, that DHS’s work with those state and local fusion centers has not produced useful intelligence to support Federal counterterrorism efforts. The Subcommittee investigation found that DHS-assigned detailees to the fusion centers forwarded “intelligence” of uneven quality – oftentimes shoddy, rarely timely, sometimes endangering citizens’ civil liberties and Privacy Act protections, occasionally taken from already-published public sources, and more often than not unrelated to terrorism.
New technologies and warfare, International Committee of the Red Cross, Spring 2012
The dazzling scientific and technical progress of recent decades has given rise to unprecedented means and methods of warfare. Some of these new technologies (such as observation and combat drones) are already in use, while others (nanotechnologies, combat robots, and laser weapons) are still in the experimental and developmental stages. As well as the need for military capabilities on land, sea, and airspace, great armies are recognizing the need to have military capabilities in cyberspace.
DIA Strategic Vision, 2012-2017, US Defense Intelligence Agency, January 2012
IT plays a vital role in enabling the defense intelligence mission. An incredible challenge facing our nation is securing information from internal and external threats while enabling beneficial collaboration within our internal national security infrastructure. Specifically, DIA Director Lieutenant General Ronald L. Burgess, Jr. stated that DIA must stay ahead of the advanced pace of available information technology capabilities to timely address the challenges that face the defense intelligence mission. The DIA Strategy cites that 'DIA must rapidly implement new and innovative approaches in order to outpace the application of low technology advantages by our nation’s adversaries.'
Military Intelligence Fusion for Complex Operations, RAND Corporation, 2012
The primary purpose of military intelligence is to support the decisionmaking process of military commanders. Keeping in mind that there are many functional or technical aspects of intelligence analysis, the ultimate “end” of all-source fusion for a military commander or policy-maker is the best-possible holistic explanation of an inherently complex environment based on all available, collectable, and relevant information.
Danger Area 202 Complex, Civil Aviation Authority, June 2011
A map issued by the Civil Aviation Authority of the umanned drones test corridor extending from MOD Aberporth to the Sennybridge ranges near the Brecon Beacons National Park.
Map of MOD Aberporth firing range in Cardigan Bay, Ministry of Defence, June 2011
A map issued by the Ministry of Defence of the off-shore testing range at MOD Aberporth in Cardigan Bay.
The Rise of the Fusion-Intelligence Complex – A critique of political surveillance after 9/11, Newkirk, A., Surveillance and Society, vol.8 no.1 pp.43-60, 2010
A prominent goal of domestic security services over the past generation has been to completely remove the distinction between policing and information-collection. Over the past decade, this tendency has become unmistakable as a result of the frenzied privatization of state security under the guise of "homeland security." In the bargain, a new agency of political surveillance has arisen, the fusion center. This phenomenon is a medium of both privatization and assaults on ever-shrinking civil liberties in a more militarized, more insecure society.
United States Air Force: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Flight Plan 2009-2047, United States Air Force, 18/05/2009
This Flight Plan is an actionable plan to achieve the USAF vision for the future of UAS. The USAF will implement the actions described within to evolve UAS capabilities. Given the dynamic nature of emerging technologies, this Flight Plan is a living document crafted to be updated as benchmarks are achieved and emerging technologies proven. Specifically, this plan outlines initiatives from 2009 to 2047 in DOTMLPF-P format that balance the early USAF unmanned lessons learned with current and emerging unmanned technology advancements.
What's Wrong With Fusion Centers – Report Update, ACLU, July 2008
In November 2007, the American Civil Liberties Union issued a report entitled “What’s Wrong with Fusion Centers.” In the six months since our report, new press accounts have borne out many of our warnings. In just that short time, news accounts have reported overzealous intelligence gathering, the expansion of uncontrolled access to data on innocent people, hostility to open government laws, abusive entanglements between security agencies and the private sector, and lax protections for personally identifiable information.
US Air Force Cyber Command Strategic Vision, United States Air Force, February 2008
Warfighters rely upon cyberspace to command and control forces in the 21st century. Revolutionary technology has presented cyber capabilities, which can provide decisive effects traditionally achieved only through kinetic means. Recognizing the domain’s importance, Secretary of the Air Force Michael Wynne announced Air Force Cyberspace Command in September 2007 to bring together the myriad existing cyber capabilities under a single commander. This new command will provide combat-ready forces equipped to conduct sustained operations in and through the electromagnetic spectrum, fully integrated with global air and space operations.
What's Wrong With Fusion Centers, ACLU, December 2007
A new institution is emerging in American life: Fusion Centers. Though they developed independently and remain quite different from one another, for many the scope of their mission has quickly expanded — with the support and encouragement of the federal government — to cover “all crimes and all hazards.” The types of information they seek for analysis has also broadened over time to include not just criminal intelligence, but public and private sector data, and participation in these centers has grown to include not just law enforcement, but other government entities, the military and even select members of the private sector.
The Knowledge Matrix Approach to Intelligence Fusion, RAND Corporation, 2007
The analytical method proposed here is a sequential process of determining the quality of a piece of information and the likelihood that two pieces of information concern the same entity – or, indeed, two separate entities. The process entails putting the observations through a sequence of operations to determine whether they (1) are close enough geographically – with respect to their separate errors in location to be of the same entity, (2) have consistent identities that would not prevent them from being considered the same entity, and (3) contain information content of high enough quality to warrant the combination.
The Implementation of Network-Centric Warfare, US Department of Defense, 2005
Warfare is about human behavior in a context of organized violence directed toward political ends. So, network-centric warfare (NCW) is about human behavior within a networked environment. "The network" is a noun, the information technology, and can only be the enabler. "To network" is the verb, the human behavior, the action, and the main focus. So, implementation of NCW must look beyond the acquisition of the technical enablers to individual and organizational behavior, e.g., organizational structure, processes, tactics, and the way choices are made. In other words, all elements of the enterprise are in play.
Power to the Edge: Command and Control in the Information Age, Command and Control Research Program, June 2003
Power to the Edge is the latest book in the Information Age Transformation Series, and in a sense it completes the articulation of a vision of DoD Transformation and an approach to achieving it.
Understanding Information Age Warfare, Command and Control Research Program, August 2001
The age we live in is full of contradictions. It is a time unlike any other, a time when the pace of change demands that we change while we are still at the top of our game in order to survive the next wave. It is a time when our analysis methods are becoming less and less able to shed light on the choices we face. It is a time when the tried and true approaches to military command and control, organization, and doctrine need to be re-examined.
Joint Vision 2020, US Department of Defense, May 2000
Joint Vision 2020 builds upon and extends the conceptual template established by Joint Vision 2010 to guide the continuing transformation of America's Armed Forces. The primary purpose of those forces has been and will be to fight and win the Nation's wars. The overall goal of the transformation described in this document is the creation of a force that is dominant across the full spectrum of military operations – persuasive in peace, decisive in war, preeminent in any form of conflict.
Network Centric Warfare – Developing and Leveraging Information Superiority, CCRP, 1999
Warfare in the Information Age will inevitably embody the characteristics that distinguish this age from previous ones. These characteristics affect the capabilities that are brought to battle as well as the nature of the environment in which conflicts occur. The purposes of this book are to describe the Network Centric Warfare concept; to explain how it embodies the characteristics of the Information Age; to identify the challenges in transforming this concept into a real operational capability; and to suggest a prudent approach to meeting these challenges.
Joint Vision 2010, US Department of Defense, July 1996
The nature of modern warfare demands that we fight as a joint team. This was important yesterday, it is essential today, and it will be even more imperative tomorrow. Joint Vision 2010 provides an operationally based template for the evolution of the Armed Forces for a challenging and uncertain future. It must become a benchmark for Service and Unified Command visions.